1.A contract requires a two-thirds majority in the Senate, while an executive agreement does not. 2.A The contract is a formal agreement, while an executive agreement is not as formal as a contract. 3.A treaty is forwarded to successive presidents, while an executive agreement must be renegotiated each time. 4.An executive agreement is of two types while a contract is not. 5.A president may appoint an executive agreement, but not a contract. 6.Es gives much more executive agreements than contracts. If the executive branch has the jurisdiction to do politics without referring to Congress, the president can enforce executive agreements. These areas include issues under the executive power of the President or his role as commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Footnote 25 Sole executive agreements do not require congressional approval, but, like congressional executive agreements, must be notified to Congress under the Case Act. Footnote 26 Executive agreements are often used to circumvent the requirements of national constitutions for treaty ratification. Many nations that are republics with written constitutions have constitutional rules on treaty ratification. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe is based on executive agreements. The first opportunity to opt out is the fact that non-autonomous contracts follow a two-step process to become applicable under U.S.
law. Footnote 39 After ratification, non-autonomous treaties require additional implementation through legislation that requires a simple majority in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. Compare this with the executive agreement, for which the terms of application can and will be adopted at the same pace as ratification. Hathaway argues that the two-step treaty process allows the president to break his promise after ratification, either intentionally or because the domestic policy costs for implementing enforcement laws are too high. Footnote 40 50 Martin, supra note 15 (with a formal signalling model in which the cost of the agreement determines its credibility). Executive agreements are not ratified by the legislature and require a majority of Senate support for treaties. This is why executive agreements are often used to circumvent the requirements of national constitutions for treaty ratification.