Currently, there is no commercial deep-sea Arctic fishing, with most of the area covered with ice all year round. However, given that an increasing ice-free area is available in the summer for an increasingly long part of the year, the parties expect commercial fishing to be possible in the near future. This agreement is the first multilateral agreement of its kind to adopt a legally binding and preventive approach to protecting an area from commercial fishing even before fishing has begun. This agreement provides the parties with a framework for cooperation to better understand ecosystems in and around the central Arctic Ocean. It prevents commercial fishing until sufficient scientific information is available to inform decisions on the viability and sustainability of possible future fishing activities in the area of the agreement. The parties intend to meet at least every two years to verify the progress of implementation and the scientific information developed as part of a joint scientific research and monitoring programme. Norway has ratified an agreement on unregulated fishing in the central Arctic Ocean All signatory parties should ratify the agreement. In Canada, the agreement is presented to the House of Commons for 21 days of session, in accordance with the policy of submitting treaties to Parliament. At the end of this submission period, the Minister of Foreign Affairs will be able to obtain from the Council, through a regulation, the necessary authority to ratify the agreement. The parties agree to allow their own vessels to fish in the international part of the central Arctic Ocean until international conservation and management measures are adopted. The agreement will be part of the existing international legal framework for the rights and obligations of states in international waters. The moratorium concerns a part of the high seas outside the exclusive economic zones of the Arctic states, which is roughly the size of the Mediterranean. The agreement is valid for sixteen years if it enters into force 30 days after its ratification by the ten signatories.
That was a concern of the Arctic coastal states. Thus, they decided to prevent commercial fishing until better scientific knowledge was available and to involve other countries with high-water fishing capacity. The result was the international agreement for the prevention of unregulated deep-sea fishing in the Central Arctic Ocean, signed in 2018 by Canada, Iceland, the Kingdom of Denmark, Norway, the United States and the Russian Federation, as well as China, Japan, South Korea and the European Union. The interest of other states in preventing unregulated deep-sea fishing in the central Arctic Ocean and the future of cooperation with them as part of a broader process to implement measures consistent with this Declaration, which would include commitments from all interested states. We are not aware of a direct (legal or political) link between CAOFA and the WTO negotiations on fisheries subsidies. The CAOFA contains no provisions and no provisions for grants. The final text of the agreement ensures the involvement of indigenous peoples in the procedural process and recognizes that, given the operational nature of these agreements, there is no significant overlap between these agreements and the central Arctic Ocean fisheries agreement. Although the scientific cooperation agreement is expected to be relevant by name, it is intended to involve the movement of humans and means equipment between the Arctic states and would not be relevant to a deep-sea scientific program in the central Arctic Ocean, determined by the freedom of marine scientific research under UNCLOS.